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Leishmaniasis is endemic in south-west Europe. Recent data point to the spread and (re-)emergence of this disease in previously endemic and non-endemic European countries. A recent example is the urban community outbreak of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis in the south-west of Madrid autonomous community, Spain, which began on 1 July 2009. A total of 446 cases associated to this outbreak were reported up to 31 December 2012. We show molecular typing data for 73 Leishmania infantum isolates obtained from January 2008 to July 2012 from different areas of Madrid, including those affected by the outbreak. Seven different genotypes were identified by combining data from two targets: the ribosomal internal transcribed spacers (ITS)-1 and -2 and the haspb (k26) gene. The results contribute to a better understanding of the parasite population circulating in the region, and indicate that most of the outbreak-associated isolates (22/31) were infected by parasites with the same combined genotype. Additional data from 82 L. infantum isolates typed as either MON-1 or MON-24 by isoenzyme analysis indicate that far from concluding that the outbreak was caused by a 'new' emerging genotype, further molecular typing-based surveillance studies are required to better understand the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the region. .


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