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Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB; resistance to at least rifampicin and isoniazid) is a global public health concern. In 2010-2011, Uzbekistan, in central Asia, conducted its first countrywide survey to determine the prevalence of MDR-TB among TB patients. The proportion of MDR-TB among new and previously treated TB patients throughout the country was measured and risk factors for MDR-TB explored. A total of 1,037 patients were included. MDR-TB was detected in 165 treatment-naïve (23.2%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.8%-29.5%) and 207 previously treated (62.0%; 95% CI: 52.5%-70.7%) patients. In 5.3% (95% CI: 3.1%-8.4%) of MDR-TB cases, resistance to fluoroquinolones and second-line injectable drugs (extensively drug resistant TB; XDR-TB) was detected. MDR-TB was significantly associated with age under 45 years (adjusted odds ratio: 2.24; 95% CI: 1.45-3.45), imprisonment (1.93; 95% CI: 1.01-3.70), previous treatment (4.45; 95% CI: 2.66-7.43), and not owning a home (1.79; 95% CI: 1.01-3.16). MDR-TB estimates for Uzbekistan are among the highest reported in former Soviet Union countries. Efforts to diagnose, treat and prevent spread of MDR-TB need scaling up. .


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