Surveillance and outbreak reports Open Access
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New systems of surveillance to better monitor the dynamics of HIV are needed. A national surveillance of new HIV diagnoses which included the collection of dried serum spots (DSS) to identify recent infections (<6 months) using an EIA-RI assay was implemented in 2003 in France. The collection of DSS is based on the voluntary participation by both patients and microbiologists. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with recent infection (RI). Between July 2003 and December 2006, 14,155 cases newly diagnosed for HIV were reported. A minority of patients refused the collection of DSS (3.3%) and the rate of participation of laboratories was 80%. The test was performed for 10,855 newly diagnosed HIV cases, the overall proportion of RI was 23.1% (95% CI, 22.3%-23.9%). The proportion of RI was higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) (42.8%) than among heterosexuals (16.3%). Among heterosexuals, it varied by current nationality: 27% among French versus 8.4% among Africans. The risk of RI was greater for MSM (aOR=1.8), those of French nationality (aOR=3.9), those with high-economic status (aOR=1.2), those tested after a risk exposure (aOR=1.4), those tested for HIV three or more times during their lifetime (aOR=2.5). The risk of RI decreased with age. A nation-wide implementation of RI monitoring is feasible. The information on RI is very useful for renewing prevention messages, particularly among population in which HIV transmission is on going, such as MSM.


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