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During the last decade Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) emerged and/or re-emerged in several Balkan countries, Turkey, southwestern regions of the Russian Federation, and the Ukraine, with considerable high fatality rates. Reasons for re-emergence of CCHF include climate and anthropogenic factors such as changes in land use, agricultural practices or hunting activities, movement of livestock that may influence host-tick-virus dynamics. In order to be able to design prevention and control measures targeted at the disease, mapping of endemic areas and risk assessment for CCHF in Europe should be completed. Furthermore, areas at risk for further CCHF expansion should be identified and human, vector and animal surveillance be strengthened.


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