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Few reports describe the features of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) pneumonia in children. We retrospectively reviewed 21 consecutive children admitted to hospital from September to October 2009 in the Tokyo region. The diagnosis of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) virus infection was based on positive results of real-time RT-PCR or rapid influenza antigen test. All patients were hospitalised for pneumonia with respiratory failure and severe hypoxia. The median interval from onset of influenza symptoms to admission was 14 hours (range: 5-72 hours) and the median interval from the onset of fever (≥38ºC) to hospitalisation was 8.5 hours (range: 0-36 hours). All patients required oxygen inhalation. Four patients required mechanical ventilation. Chest radiography revealed patchy infiltration or atelectasis in all patients. Antiviral agents and antibiotics were administrated to all patients. Antiviral agents were administered to 20 patients within 48 hours of influenza symptom onset. No deaths occurred during the study period. Paediatric patients with this pneumonia showed rapid aggravation of dyspnoea and hypoxia after the onset of influenza symptoms. .


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