Surveillance and outbreak reports Open Access
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Increasing trends for invasive infections with extended-spectrum cephalosporin-resistant (ESC-R) Enterobacteriaceae have been described in many countries worldwide. However, data on the rates of ESC-R isolates in non-invasive infections and in the outpatient setting are scarce. We used a laboratory-based nationwide surveillance system to compare temporal trends of ESC-R rates in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae for in- and outpatients in Switzerland. Our data showed a significant increase in ESC-R rates from 1% to 5.8% in E. coli (p<0.001) and from 1.1% to 4.4% in K. pneumoniae (p=0.002) during an eight-year period (2004-2011). For E. coli, the increase was significantly higher in inpatients (from 1.2% to 6.6%), in patients residing in eastern Switzerland (from 1.0% to 6.2%), in patients older than 45 years (from 1.2% to 6.7%), and in male patients (from 1.2% to 8.1%). While the increase in inpatients was linear (p<0.001) for E. coli, the increase of ESC R K. pneumoniae isolates was the result of multiple outbreaks in several institutions. Notably, an increasing proportion of ESC-R E. coli was co-resistant to both trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and quinolones (42% in 2004 to 49.1% in 2011, p=0.009), further limiting the available oral therapeutic options. .


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