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Harmonised European recommendations for the management of HIV exposure have been needed for some time. Important and impressive work has been achieved by two groups of experts from a total of 14 countries, and their conclusions and recommendations are reported in the two papers from Jesús Almeda et al and Vincenzo Puro et al [1,2]. Two characteristic settings are specified, although the difference between each is debatable if the issue is to avoid or prevent an established infection after exposure to HIV (or, indeed, HCV or HBV). As the authors point out, post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is the standard of care for healthcare workers (HCW) in almost all countries including the United States, but not for the management of sexual, injecting drug use or other non-occupational exposures to HIV.


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