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The spore-forming Bacillus anthracis must be considered as one of the most serious potential biological weapons. The recent cases of anthrax caused by a deliberate release reported in 2001 in the United States point to the necessity of early recognition of this disease. Infection in humans most often involves the skin, and more rarely the lungs and the gastrointestinal tract. Inhalational anthrax is of particular interest for possible deliberate release: it is a life-threatening disease and early diagnosis and treatment can significantly decrease the mortality rate. Treatment consists of massive doses of antibiotics and supportive care. Isolation is not necessary. Antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin are recommended for post-exposure prophylaxis during 60 days.


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