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Reported incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in the Czech Republic increased steeply over the past decade from 90 new cases in 2005 to 266 in 2015. This increase is almost exclusively attributed to sexual transmissions between men who have sex with men (MSM). In 2015, there were 79% (n=210) newly diagnosed cases among MSM, 17% (n=45) were attributed to heterosexual transmission and 1% (n=3) to people who inject drugs. Interventions targeted at MSM have not yet been prioritised in the broadly focused national HIV prevention strategy which this is envisaged to change in the programme set out for 2018 to 2022. The national budget for HIV prevention has been reduced, however, and this remains. Availability of voluntary counselling and testing has decreased substantially in the past decade. Post- and pre-exposure prophylaxis for sexual intercourse among MSM are not part of the HIV prevention policy and the concept of treatment as prevention is not fully recognised. Provision of a combined prevention strategy with a focus on MSM, reflecting the above factors including stigmatisation, should contribute to reverse the development of a concentrated HIV epidemic among MSM in the Czech Republic.


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