1887
Surveillance and outbreak report Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Endemic measles transmission was interrupted for the first time in Ireland in 2015. In May 2016, a case of measles was confirmed in an adult who had travelled from Hungary to Ireland (index case). Cases subsequently arose in five of the eight public health regions around the country. There were 40 confirmed cases in Ireland between April and September 2016. All sequenced cases were genotype B3. Vaccination status was known for 34 cases, of whom 31 were unvaccinated. Median age was 8 years (range: 3 months to 40 years). Ten cases were nosocomial, and three cases were infected on separate international flights. One linked case occurred in a resident of Slovenia. Nineteen cases were hospitalised; median duration of hospitalisation was 5 days (range: 2–8 days). The primary case was a child who travelled from Romania to Ireland via Budapest, and infected the index adult case on the same flight. This was the first reported outbreak of measles genotype B3 in Ireland. This outbreak demonstrated that Ireland remains at risk of measles outbreaks due to persistent suboptimal vaccination rates.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.31.1700655
2018-08-02
2018-10-18
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.31.1700655
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/23/31/eurosurv-23-31-2.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.31.1700655&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC). Annual Report 2004. Dublin: HPSC; 2005. Available from: http://www.hpsc.ie/abouthpsc/annualreports/File,1438,en.pdf
  2. Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC). Annual Epidemiological Report 2014. Dublin: HPSC; 2015. Available from: http://www.hpsc.ie/abouthpsc/annualreports/HPSC%20Annual%20Report%202014%20%20.pdf
  3. Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC). Annual Epidemiological Report 2015. Dublin: HPSC; 2016. Available from: http://www.hpsc.ie/abouthpsc/annualreports/AR%202015.pdf
  4. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/Europe). Eliminating measles and rubella. Framework for the verification process in the WHO European Region. Copenhagen: WHO/Europe; 2014. Available from: http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0009/247356/Eliminating-measles-and-rubella-Framework-for-the-verification-process-in-the-WHO-European-Region.pdf
  5. Barrett P, Chaintarli K, Ryan F, Cotter S, Cronin A, Carlton L, et al. An ongoing measles outbreak linked to a suspected imported case, Ireland, April to June 2016. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(27):30277.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.27.30277  PMID: 27416848 
  6. Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC). Case Definitions for Notifiable Diseases. 2012 Version 1.8. Dublin: HPSC; 2012. Available from: https://www.hpsc.ie/notifiablediseases/casedefinitions/File,823,en.pdf
  7. Rota PA, Brown K, Mankertz A, Santibanez S, Shulga S, Muller CP, et al. Global distribution of measles genotypes and measles molecular epidemiology. J Infect Dis. 2011;204(Suppl 1):S514-23.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir118  PMID: 21666208 
  8. Health Service Executive (HSE). Immunisation Guidelines for Ireland. Chapter 12. Measles. Dublin: HSE; 2016. Available from: https://www.hse.ie/eng/health/immunisation/hcpinfo/guidelines/
  9. Andrews N, Tischer A, Siedler A, Pebody RG, Barbara C, Cotter S, et al. Towards elimination: measles susceptibility in Australia and 17 European countries. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(3):197-204.  https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.07.041129  PMID: 18368206 
  10. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Rapid risk assessment: ongoing outbreak of measles in Romania, risk of spread and epidemiological situation in EU/EEA countries, 3 March 2017. Stockholm: ECDC; 7 Mar 2017. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-ongoing-outbreak-measles-romania-risk-spread-and
  11. Gee S, Cotter S, O’Flanagan D, on behalf of the National Incident Management Team. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010. Euro Surveill. 2010;15(9):19500.  https://doi.org/10.2807/ese.15.09.19500-en  PMID: 20214870 
  12. Health Service Executive (HSE) South. (Cork & Kerry). Department of Public Health. Immunisation Focus Newsletter. 2012;9(4). Cork: Department of Public Health HSE-South. Available from: http://www.lenus.ie/hse/handle/10147/245776
  13. O’Connor B, Cotter S, Heslin J, Lynam B. McGOVERN E, Murray H, et al. Catching measles in an appropriately vaccinated group: a well-circumscribed outbreak in the South East of Ireland, September-November 2013. Epidemiol Infect. 2016;144(15):3131-8.  PMID: 27431259 
  14. McBrien J, Murphy J, Gill D, Cronin M, O’Donovan C, Cafferkey MT. Measles outbreak in Dublin, 2000. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22(7):580-4.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.inf.0000073059.57867.36  PMID: 12867830 
  15. Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC). HSE School Immunisations Programme for Junior Infants Academic Year 2015/2016. Dublin: HPSC. [Accessed 18 July 2018]. Available from: http://www.hpsc.ie/a-z/vaccinepreventable/vaccination/immunisationuptakestatistics/immunisationuptakestatisticsforjuniorinfants/Jr.%20Infants%20DTaP-IPV%20&%20MMR%202015-2016-Table.pdf
  16. Rasmussen LD, Fonager J, Knudsen LK, Andersen PH, Rønn J, Poulsen MW, et al. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014. Euro Surveill. 2015;20(39):30027.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2015.20.39.30027  PMID: 26537105 
  17. Nic Lochlainn L, Mandal S, de Sousa R, Paranthaman K, van Binnendijk R, Ramsay M, et al. A unique measles B3 cluster in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands linked to air travel and transit at a large international airport, February to April 2014. Euro Surveill. 2016;21(13):30177.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2016.21.13.30177  PMID: 27074646 
  18. Filia A, Bella A, Cadeddu G, Milia MR, Del Manso M, Rota MC, et al. Extensive Nosocomial Transmission of Measles Originating in Cruise Ship Passenger, Sardinia, Italy, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21(8):1444-6.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2108.141105  PMID: 26196266 
  19. Lanini S, Capobianchi MR, Puro V, Filia A, Del Manso M, Karki T, et al. . Measles outbreak on a cruise ship in the western Mediterranean, February 2014, preliminary report. Euro Surveill. 2014;19(10):20735.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES2014.19.10.20735  PMID: 24650863 
  20. Grammens T, Schirvel C, Leenen S, Shodu N, Hutse V, Mendes da Costa E, et al. Ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, December 2016 to March 2017: characteristics and challenges. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(17):30524.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.17.30524  PMID: 28488998 
  21. George F, Valente J, Augusto GF, Silva AJ, Pereira N, Fernandes T, et al. Measles outbreak after 12 years without endemic transmission, Portugal, February to May 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(23):30548.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.23.30548  PMID: 28661392 
  22. Kurchatova A, Krumova S, Vladimirova N, Nikolaeva-Glomb L, Stoyanova A, Kantardjiev T, et al. Preliminary findings indicate nosocomial transmission and Roma population as most affected group in ongoing measles B3 genotype outbreak in Bulgaria, March to August 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(36):30611.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.36.30611  PMID: 28920573 
  23. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Meeting report. Communicable disease prevention among Roma. Vienna, 27-29 November 2011. Stockholm: ECDC; May 2012. Available from: https://ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/media/en/publications/Publications/Communicable-disease-prevention-among-Roma-meeting-report.pdf
  24. Chen SY, Anderson S, Kutty PK, Lugo F, McDonald M, Rota PA, et al. Health care-associated measles outbreak in the United States after an importation: challenges and economic impact. J Infect Dis. 2011;203(11):1517-25.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir115  PMID: 21531693 
  25. Maltezou HC, Wicker S. Measles in health-care settings. Am J Infect Control. 2013;41(7):661-3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2012.09.017  PMID: 23352075 
  26. Porretta A, Quattrone F, Aquino F, Pieve G, Bruni B, Gemignani G, et al. A nosocomial measles outbreak in Italy, February-April 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(33):30597.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.33.30597  PMID: 28840827 
  27. Currie J, Davies L, McCarthy J, Perry M, Moore C, Cottrell S, et al. Measles outbreak linked to European B3 outbreaks, Wales, United Kingdom, 2017. Euro Surveill. 2017;22(42).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2017.22.42.17-00673  PMID: 29067903 
  28. Mette A, Reuss AM, Feig M, Kappelmayer L, Siedler A, Eckmanns T, et al. Under-reporting of measles: an evaluation based on data from north rhine-westphalia. Dtsch Arztebl Int. 2011;108(12):191-6. PMID: 21505600 
  29. Ciofi Degli Atti ML, Salmaso S, Bella A, Arigliani R, Gangemi M, Chiamenti G. Pediatric sentinel surveillance of vaccine-preventable diseases in Italy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2002;21(8):763-8.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00006454-200208000-00013  PMID: 12192166 
  30. Takla A, Wichmann O, Rieck T, Matysiak-Klose D. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007-2011. Bull World Health Organ. 2014;92(10):742-9.  https://doi.org/10.2471/BLT.13.135145  PMID: 25378728 
  31. Flego KL, Belshaw DA, Sheppeard V, Weston KM. Impacts of a measles outbreak in Western Sydney on public health resources. Commun Dis Intell Q Rep. 2013;37(3):E240-5. PMID: 24890960 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.31.1700655
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Comment has been disabled for this content
Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error