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In contrast to countries where carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) are endemic, only sporadic cases were reported in Switzerland until 2013. An aggravation of the epidemiological situation in neighbouring European countries indicated the need for a surveillance study in Switzerland.


We aimed to describe CPE distributions in Switzerland and identify epidemiological factors associated with changes in incidence.


Data on all human CPE isolates from 2013 to 2018 were collected by the Swiss Centre for Antibiotic Resistance (ANRESIS) and analysed for temporal and regional trends by Generalised Poisson regression. Isolates associated with infection or colonisation were included in a primary analysis; a secondary analysis included invasive isolates only. Statistical detection of regional clusters was performed with WHONET/SaTScan.


We analysed 731 CPE isolates, of which 325 (44.5%) were associated with screenings and 173 (23.7%) with infections. Yearly detection of CPE isolates increased considerably during the study period from 65 to 212. The most frequently isolated species were (54%) and (28%). The most frequent genotypes were OXA-48 (43%), KPC (21%) and NDM (14%). In contrast to the French-speaking parts of Switzerland (West, Geneva) where OXA-48 were the predominant genotypes (around 60%), KPC was the most frequently detected genotype in the Italian-speaking region (63%). WHONET/SaTScan outbreak detection analysis identified seven clusters in five regions of Switzerland.


In a first continuous surveillance of CPE in Switzerland, we found that the epidemiological situation aggravated nationwide and that regional patterns of CPE genotypes mirrored the situation in neighbouring European countries.


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