1887
Research Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Background

Robust data on SARS-CoV-2 population seroprevalence supplement surveillance data in providing evidence for public health action.

Aim

To conduct a SARS-CoV-2 population-based seroprevalence survey in Ireland.

Methods

Using a cross-sectional study design, we selected population samples from individuals aged 12–69 years in counties Dublin and Sligo using the Health Service Executive Primary Care Reimbursement Service database as a sampling frame. Samples were selected with probability proportional to the general population age–sex distribution, and by simple random sampling within age–sex strata. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were detected using the Abbott Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG Assay and confirmed using the Wantai Assay. We estimated the population SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence weighted for age, sex and geographic area.

Results

Participation rates were 30% (913/3,043) and 44% (820/1,863) in Dublin and Sligo. Thirty-three specimens had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (1.9%). We estimated weighted seroprevalences of 3.12% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05–4.53) and 0.58% (95% CI: 0.18–1.38) for Dublin and Sligo, and 1.69% (95% CI: 1.13–2.41) nationally. This equates to an estimated 59,482 (95% CI: 39,772–85,176) people aged 12–69 years nationally having had infection with SARS-CoV-2, 3.0 (95% CI: 2.0–4.3) times higher than confirmed notifications. Ten participants reported a previous laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 -infection; eight of these were antibody-positive. Twenty-five antibody-positive participants had not reported previous laboratory-confirmed infection.

Conclusion

The majority of people in Ireland are unlikely to have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 by June–July 2020. Non-pharmaceutical public health measures remained key pending widespread availability of vaccination, and effective treatments.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.48.2001741
2021-12-02
2022-07-06
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.48.2001741
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/26/48/eurosurv-26-48-5.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.48.2001741&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Eckerle I, Meyer B. SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in COVID-19 hotspots. Lancet. 2020;396(10250):514-5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31482-3  PMID: 32645348 
  2. Health Information and Quality Authority (HIQA). Evidence summary of the immune response following infection with SARS-CoV-2 or other human coronaviruses. Dublin: HIQA; 2020. Available from: https://www.hiqa.ie/sites/default/files/2020-08/Evidence-summary_SARS-CoV-2-immune-response.pdf
  3. Hall V, Foulkes S, Charlett A, Atti A, Mok EJM, et al. Do antibody positive healthcare workers have lower SARS-CoV-2 infection rates than antibody negative healthcare workers? Large multi-centre prospective cohort study (the SIREN study), England: June to November 2020. medRxiv. 2021:2021.01.13.21249642. Preprint.  https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.01.13.21249642 
  4. Gudbjartsson DF, Norddahl GL, Melsted P, Gunnarsdottir K, Holm H, Eythorsson E, et al. Humoral immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland. N Engl J Med. 2020;383(18):1724-34.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2026116  PMID: 32871063 
  5. Faustini SE, Jossi SE, Perez-Toledo M, et al. Detection of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein in both serum and saliva enhances detection of infection. medRxiv. 2020.2006.2016.20133025. Preprint.  https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.2006.2016.20133025 
  6. World Health Organization (WHO). Population-based age-stratified seroepidemiological investigation protocol for coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Version 2.0. Geneva: WHO; 2020. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-Seroepidemiology-2020.2
  7. Central Statistics Office. Census 2016. Cork: Government of Ireland; 2017. Available from: https://www.cso.ie/en/census/census2016reports
  8. Public Health England (PHE). Evaluation of the Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG for the detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. London: PHE; 2020. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-laboratory-evaluations-of-serological-assays
  9. GeurtsvanKessel CH, Okba NMA, Igloi Z, Bogers S, Embregts CWE, Laksono BM, et al. An evaluation of COVID-19 serological assays informs future diagnostics and exposure assessment. Nat Commun. 2020;11(1):3436.  https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17317-y  PMID: 32632160 
  10. Pollán M, Pérez-Gómez B, Pastor-Barriuso R, Oteo J, Hernán MA, Pérez-Olmeda M, et al. Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in Spain (ENE-COVID): a nationwide, population-based seroepidemiological study. Lancet. 2020;396(10250):535-44.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31483-5  PMID: 32645347 
  11. Ministero della Salute. Covid-19, illustrati i risultati dell'indagine di sieroprevalenza. [Covid-19, illustrated the results of the seroprevalence study]. Italy: Ministry of Health; 2020. Italian. Available from: http://www.salute.gov.it/portale/news/p3_2_1_1_1.jsp?lingua=italiano&menu=notizie&p=dalministero&id=4998
  12. Ward H, Atchison CJ, Whitaker M, Ainslie KE, Elliott J, Okell LC, et al. Antibody prevalence for SARS-CoV-2 in England following first peak of the pandemic: REACT2 study in 100,000 adults. medRxiv. 2020:2020.08.12.20173690. Preprint.  https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.12.20173690 
  13. Merkely B, Szabó AJ, Kosztin A, Berényi E, Sebestyén A, Lengyel C, et al. Novel coronavirus epidemic in the Hungarian population, a cross-sectional nationwide survey to support the exit policy in Hungary. Geroscience. 2020;42(4):1063-74.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00226-9  PMID: 32677025 
  14. Havers FP, Reed C, Lim T, Montgomery JM, Klena JD, Hall AJ, et al. Seroprevalence of Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 in 10 Sites in the United States, March 23-May 12, 2020. JAMA Intern Med. 2020;180(12):1576-86.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.4130  PMID: 32692365 
  15. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the EU/EEA and the UK – eleventh update, 10 August 2020. Stockholm: ECDC; 2020. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/rapid-risk-assessment-coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-eueea-and-uk-eleventh
  16. Stringhini S, Wisniak A, Piumatti G, Azman AS, Lauer SA, Baysson H, et al. Seroprevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in Geneva, Switzerland (SEROCoV-POP): a population-based study. Lancet. 2020;396(10247):313-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31304-0  PMID: 32534626 
  17. Burgess S, Ponsford MJ, Gill D. Are we underestimating seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2? BMJ. 2020;370:m3364.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m3364  PMID: 32883673 
  18. Muecksch. F, Wise H, Batchelor B, Squires M, Semple E, et al. Longitudinal analysis of serology and neutralizing antibody levels in COVID19 convalescents. J Infect Dis. medRxiv. 2020:2020.08.05.20169128. Preprint.  https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.05.20169128 
  19. Health Protection Surveillance Centre (HPSC). National Serosurveillance Programme. Dublin: HPSC. [Accessed: 30 Nov 2021]. Available from: https://www.hpsc.ie/a-z/nationalserosurveillanceprogramme
  20. Public Health Scotland (PHS). Enhanced Surveillance of COVID-19 in Scotland: Population-based seroprevalence surveillance. Scotland: PHS; 2020. Available from: https://beta.isdscotland.org/find-publications-and-data/population-health/covid-19/enhanced-surveillance-of-covid-19-i n-scotland
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2021.26.48.2001741
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error