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Because cefixime and ceftriaxone resistance in and gonorrhoea treatment failures were increasing, a response plan to control and manage multidrug-resistant (MDR-NG) in Europe was published in 2012. The three main areas of the plan were to: (i) strengthen surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) implement monitoring of treatment failures and (iii) establish a communication strategy to increase awareness and disseminate AMR results. Since 2012, several additional extensively drug-resistant (XDR-NG) strains have emerged, and strains with high-level ceftriaxone resistance spread internationally. This prompted an evaluation and review of the 2012 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) response plan, revealing an overall improvement in many aspects of monitoring AMR in ; however, treatment failure monitoring was a weakness. Accordingly, the plan was updated in 2019 to further support European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in controlling and managing the threat of MDR/XDR-NG in Europe through further strengthening of AMR surveillance and clinical management including treatment failure monitoring. The plan will be assessed biennially to ensure its effectiveness and its value. Along with prevention, diagnostic, treatment and epidemiological surveillance strategies, AMR surveillance is essential for effective control of gonorrhoea.


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