1887
Perspective Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Because cefixime and ceftriaxone resistance in and gonorrhoea treatment failures were increasing, a response plan to control and manage multidrug-resistant (MDR-NG) in Europe was published in 2012. The three main areas of the plan were to: (i) strengthen surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR), (ii) implement monitoring of treatment failures and (iii) establish a communication strategy to increase awareness and disseminate AMR results. Since 2012, several additional extensively drug-resistant (XDR-NG) strains have emerged, and strains with high-level ceftriaxone resistance spread internationally. This prompted an evaluation and review of the 2012 European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) response plan, revealing an overall improvement in many aspects of monitoring AMR in ; however, treatment failure monitoring was a weakness. Accordingly, the plan was updated in 2019 to further support European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) countries in controlling and managing the threat of MDR/XDR-NG in Europe through further strengthening of AMR surveillance and clinical management including treatment failure monitoring. The plan will be assessed biennially to ensure its effectiveness and its value. Along with prevention, diagnostic, treatment and epidemiological surveillance strategies, AMR surveillance is essential for effective control of gonorrhoea.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.18.2100611
2022-05-05
2022-10-02
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.18.2100611
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/27/18/eurosurv-27-18-5.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.18.2100611&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Surveillance atlas of infectious diseases. Stockholm: ECDC. [Accessed: 13 Apr 2022]. Available from: https://atlas.ecdc.europa.eu/public/index.aspx
  2. Weström L. Incidence, prevalence, and trends of acute pelvic inflammatory disease and its consequences in industrialized countries. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980;138(7):880-92.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9378(80)91077-7  PMID: 7008604 
  3. Unemo M, Shafer WM. Antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the 21st century: past, evolution, and future. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2014;27(3):587-613.  https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00010-14  PMID: 24982323 
  4. Day MJ, Spiteri G, Jacobsson S, Woodford N, Amato-Gauci AJ, Cole MJ, et al. Stably high azithromycin resistance and decreasing ceftriaxone susceptibility in Neisseria gonorrhoeae in 25 European countries, 2016. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18(1):609.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3528-4  PMID: 30509194 
  5. Cole MJ, Quaye N, Jacobsson S, Day M, Fagan E, Ison C, et al. Ten years of external quality assessment (EQA) of Neisseria gonorrhoeae antimicrobial susceptibility testing in Europe elucidate high reliability of data. BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19(1):281.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-3900-z  PMID: 30909883 
  6. Cole MJ, Quinten C, Jacobsson S, Day M, Amato-Gauci AJ, Woodford N, et al. The European gonococcal antimicrobial surveillance programme (Euro-GASP) appropriately reflects the antimicrobial resistance situation for Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the European Union/European Economic Area. BMC Infect Dis. 2019;19(1):1040.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-019-4631-x  PMID: 31822275 
  7. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Response plan to control and manage the threat of multidrug-resistant gonorrhoea in Europe. Stockholm: ECDC; 2012. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/media/en/publications/Publications/1206-ECDC-MDR-gonorrhoea-response-plan.pdf
  8. World Health Organization (WHO). Global action plan to control the spread and impact of antimicrobial resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Geneva: WHO; 2012. Available from: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2012/9789241503501_eng.pdf
  9. Health Protection Agency (HPA). Gonococcal Resistance to Antimicrobials Surveillance Programme (GRASP) action plan for England and Wales: informing the public health response. London: HPA; 2013. Available from: https://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/ukgwa/20140714084352/http://www.hpa.org.uk/webc/HPAwebFile/HPAweb_C/1317138215954
  10. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cephalosporin-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae public health response plan. Atlanta: CDC; 2012. Available from: http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/ceph-r-responseplanjuly30-2012.pdf
  11. Dickson C, Arnason T, Friedman DS, Metz G, Grimshaw JM. A systematic review and appraisal of the quality of practice guidelines for the management of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections. Sex Transm Infect. 2017;93(7):487-92.  https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2016-052939  PMID: 28360378 
  12. European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST). Breakpoint tables for interpretation of MICs and zone diameters. Version 8.1. EUCAST; 2018. Available from: http://www.eucast.org/fileadmin/src/media/PDFs/EUCAST_files/Breakpoint_tables/v_8.1_Breakpoint_Tables.pdf
  13. Fifer H, Natarajan U, Jones L, Alexander S, Hughes G, Golparian D, et al. Failure of dual antimicrobial therapy in treatment of gonorrhea. N Engl J Med. 2016;374(25):2504-6.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc1512757  PMID: 27332921 
  14. Eyre DW, Sanderson ND, Lord E, Regisford-Reimmer N, Chau K, Barker L, et al. Gonorrhoea treatment failure caused by a Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain with combined ceftriaxone and high-level azithromycin resistance, England, February 2018. Euro Surveill. 2018;23(27).  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2018.23.27.1800323  PMID: 29991383 
  15. Whiley DM, Jennison A, Pearson J, Lahra MM. Genetic characterisation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae resistant to both ceftriaxone and azithromycin. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18(7):717-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30340-2  PMID: 29976521 
  16. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Rapid risk assessment: Extensively drug-resistant (XDR) Neisseria gonorrhoeae in the United Kingdom and Australia. Stockholm: ECDC; 2018. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/portal/files/documents/RRA-Gonorrhoea,%20Antimicrobial%20resistance-United%20Kingdom,%20Australia.pdf
  17. Lahra MM, Martin I, Demczuk W, Jennison AV, Lee KI, Nakayama SI, et al. Cooperative recognition of internationally disseminated ceftriaxone-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018;24(4):735-40.  https://doi.org/10.3201/eid2404.171873  PMID: 29553335 
  18. Unemo M, Ross J, Serwin AB, Gomberg M, Cusini M, Jensen JS. 2020 European guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea in adults. Int J STD AIDS. 2020;2020:956462420949126.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956462420949126  PMID: 33121366 
  19. Bignell C, Unemo M; European STI Guidelines Editorial Board, et al. 2012 European guideline on the diagnosis and treatment of gonorrhoea in adults. Int J STD AIDS. 2013;24(2):85-92.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0956462412472837  PMID: 24400344 
  20. European Commission. Commission implementing decision (EU) 2018/945 of 22 June 2018 on the communicable diseases and related special health issues to be covered by epidemiological surveillance as well as relevant case definitions. Official Journal of the European Union. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 6 Jul 2018. L 170/1. Available from: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32018D0945
  21. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Response plan to control and manage the threat of multi- and extensively drug-resistant gonorrhoea in Europe. 2019 update. Stockholm: ECDC; 2019. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/sites/default/files/documents/multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-gonorrhoea-response-plan-Europe-2019.pdf
  22. Tapsall JW, Ndowa F, Lewis DA, Unemo M. Meeting the public health challenge of multidrug- and extensively drug-resistant Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7(7):821-34.  https://doi.org/10.1586/eri.09.63  PMID: 19735224 
  23. Harris SR, Cole MJ, Spiteri G, Sánchez-Busó L, Golparian D, Jacobsson S, et al. Public health surveillance of multidrug-resistant clones of Neisseria gonorrhoeae in Europe: a genomic survey. Lancet Infect Dis. 2018;18(7):758-68.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(18)30225-1  PMID: 29776807 
  24. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Response plan to control and manage the threat of multi- and extensively drug-resistant gonorrhoea in Europe – Indicator monitoring 2019. Stockholm: ECDC; 2021. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications-data/response-plan-control-and-manage-threat-multi-and-extensively-drug-resistant-0
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.18.2100611
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error