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Effective surveillance of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in is required for the early detection of resistant strains and to ensure that treatment guidelines are appropriate for the setting in which they are implemented. AMR in has been identified as a global health threat.


We performed a systematic review to identify and describe surveillance systems targeting AMR in .


We searched Medline, PubMed, Global Health, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and ProQuest databases and grey literature between 1 January 2012 and 27 September 2020. Surveillance systems were defined as the continuous, systematic collection, analysis and interpretation of resistance data. The key components of surveillance systems were extracted, categorised, described and summarised.


We found 40 publications reporting on AMR surveillance systems in 27 countries and 10 multi-country or global surveillance reports. The proportion of countries with surveillance systems in each of the WHO's six regions ranged from one of 22 countries in the Eastern Mediterranean and five of 54 in Africa, to three of 11 countries in South East Asia. Only four countries report systems which are both comprehensive and national. We found no evidence of a current surveillance system in at least 148 countries. Coverage, representativeness, volume, clinical specimen source, type and epidemiological information vary substantially and limit interpretability and comparability of surveillance data for public health action.


Globally, surveillance for AMR is inadequate and leaves large populations vulnerable to a major public health threat.


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