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Carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) are rapidly increasing worldwide, also in Europe. Although prevalence of CPE in Germany is comparatively low, the National Reference Centre for Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative Bacteria noted annually increasing numbers of NDM-5-producing isolates.


As part of our ongoing surveillance programme, we characterised NDM-5-producing isolates received between 2013 and 2019 using whole genome sequencing (WGS).


From 329 identified NDM-5-producing , 224 isolates from known geographical locations were subjected to Illumina WGS. Analyses of 222 sequenced isolates included multilocus sequence typing (MLST), core genome (cg)MLST and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based analyses.


Results of cgMLST revealed genetically distinct clusters for many of the 43 detected sequence types (ST), of which ST167, ST410, ST405 and ST361 predominated. The SNP-based phylogenetic analyses combined with geographical information identified sporadic cases of nosocomial transmission on a small spatial scale. However, we identified large clusters corresponding to clonal dissemination of ST167, ST410, ST405 and ST361 strains in consecutive years in different regions in Germany.


Occurrence of NDM-5-producing rose in Germany, which was to a large extent due to the increased prevalence of isolates belonging to the international high-risk clones ST167, ST410, ST405 and ST361. Of particular concern is the supra-regional dissemination of these epidemic clones. Available information suggest community spread of NDM-5-producing in Germany, highlighting the importance of epidemiological investigation and an integrated surveillance system in the One Health framework.


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