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As COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 infection was lower for cases of the Omicron vs the Delta variant, understanding the effect of vaccination in reducing risk of hospitalisation and severe disease among COVID-19 cases is crucial.


To evaluate risk reduction of hospitalisation and severe disease in vaccinated COVID-19 cases during the Omicron BA.1-predominant period in Navarre, Spain.


A case-to-case comparison included COVID-19 epidemiological surveillance data in adults ≥ 18 years from 3 January–20 March 2022. COVID-19 vaccination status was compared between hospitalised and non-hospitalised cases, and between severe (intensive care unit admission or death) and non-severe cases using logistic regression models.


Among 58,952 COVID-19 cases, 565 (1.0%) were hospitalised and 156 (0.3%) were severe. The risk of hospitalisation was reduced within the first 6 months after full COVID-19 vaccination (complete primary series) (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 0.06; 95% CI: 0.04–0.09) and after 6 months (aOR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.12–0.21; p < 0.001), as well as after a booster dose (aOR: 0.06: 95% CI: 0.04–0.07). Similarly, the risk of severe disease was reduced (aOR: 0.13, 0.18, and 0.06, respectively). Compared with cases fully vaccinated 6 months or more before a positive test, those who had received a booster dose had lower risk of hospitalisation (aOR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.28–0.52) and severe disease (aOR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21–0.68).


Full COVID-19 vaccination greatly reduced the risk of hospitalisation and severe outcomes in COVID-19 cases with the Omicron variant, and a booster dose improved this effect in people aged over 65 years.


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