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Aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals, nature-based solutions such as urban greening e.g. public gardens, urban forests, parks and street trees, which aim to protect, sustainably manage or restore an ecosystem, have emerged as a promising tool for improving the health and well-being of an ever-increasing urban population. While urban greening efforts have undeniable benefits for human health and the biological communities inhabiting these green zones, disease vector populations may also be affected, possibly promoting greater pathogen transmission and the emergence of infectious diseases such as dengue, West Nile fever, malaria, leishmaniosis and tick-borne diseases. Evidence for the impact of urban green areas on vector-borne disease (VBD) transmission is scarce. Furthermore, because of vast disparities between cities, variation in green landscapes and differing scales of observation, findings are often contradictory; this calls for careful assessment of how urban greening affects VBD risk. Improved understanding of the effect of urban greening on VBDs would support planning, monitoring and management of green spaces in cities to sustainably mitigate VBD risks for surrounding urban populations.


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