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In the Netherlands Salmonella Paratyphi B variant Java increased in poultry from less than 2% of all isolates before 1996 to 60% in 2002. Despite exposure to contaminated meat is high, human patients with Java infection are rare (0.3% of all isolates). However, 50% of the human isolates showed PFGE profiles identical to the poultry clone. Resistance to flumequin in S. Java increased from 3% between 1996-2000 to 19% in 2001, and 39% in 2002, while that of other serotypes in poultry remained at about 7%. S. Java is also fast becoming less sensitive to ciprofloxacin.


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