1887
Rapid communication Open Access
Like 0

Abstract

Anal and urethral samples from confirmed cases of monkeypox were screened for monkeypox virus (MPXV) by real-time PCR. Isolation of the virus was subsequently attempted in cell culture. Actively-replicating virus was demonstrated in 13 of 18 and 11 of 15 PCR-positive anal and urethral swabs, respectively, collected within 7 days from symptoms onset. Two asymptomatic secondary cases had detectable MPXV genetic material in urethral secretion and for one, MPXV was successfully isolated, supporting a potential MPXV sexual transmission hypothesis.

Loading

Article metrics loading...

/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.36.2200675
2022-09-08
2022-10-07
http://instance.metastore.ingenta.com/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.36.2200675
Loading
Loading full text...

Full text loading...

/deliver/fulltext/eurosurveillance/27/36/eurosurv-27-36-2.html?itemId=/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.36.2200675&mimeType=html&fmt=ahah

References

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). U.S. Monkeypox Outbreak 2022: Situation Summary. Atlanta: CDC. [Accessed 15 Aug 2022]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/response/2022/world-map.html
  2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Monkeypox. How It Spreads. Atlanta: CDC; 29 Jul 2022. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/if-sick/transmission.html
  3. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Questions and answers on monkeypox. Stockholm: ECDC; 30 Jun 2022. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/monkeypox/questions-and-answers
  4. Tarín-Vicente EJ, Alemany A, Agud-Dios M, Ubals M, Suñer C, Antón A, et al. Clinical presentation and virological assessment of confirmed human monkeypox virus cases in Spain: a prospective observational cohort study. Lancet. 2022;400(10353):661-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(22)01436-2  PMID: 35952705 
  5. Mileto D, Riva A, Cutrera M, Moschese D, Mancon A, Meroni L, et al. New challenges in human monkeypox outside Africa: A review and case report from Italy. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2022;49:102386.; Epub ahead of print.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2022.102386  PMID: 35738529 
  6. Antinori A, Mazzotta V, Vita S, Carletti F, Tacconi D, Lapini LE, et al. , INMI Monkeypox Group. Epidemiological, clinical and virological characteristics of four cases of monkeypox support transmission through sexual contact, Italy, May 2022. Euro Surveill. 2022;27(22):2200421.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.22.2200421  PMID: 35656836 
  7. Minhaj FS, Ogale YP, Whitehill F, Schultz J, Foote M, Davidson W, et al. , Monkeypox Response Team 2022. Monkeypox Outbreak - Nine States, May 2022. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2022;71(23):764-9.  https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm7123e1  PMID: 35679181 
  8. Perez Duque M, Ribeiro S, Martins JV, Casaca P, Leite PP, Tavares M, et al. Ongoing monkeypox virus outbreak, Portugal, 29 April to 23 May 2022. Euro Surveill. 2022;27(22):2200424.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.22.2200424  PMID: 35656830 
  9. Vivancos R, Anderson C, Blomquist P, Balasegaram S, Bell A, Bishop L, et al. , UKHSA Monkeypox Incident Management team, Monkeypox Incident Management Team. Community transmission of monkeypox in the United Kingdom, April to May 2022. Euro Surveill. 2022;27(22):2200422.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.22.2200422  PMID: 35656834 
  10. Girometti N, Byrne R, Bracchi M, Heskin J, McOwan A, Tittle V, et al. Demographic and clinical characteristics of confirmed human monkeypox virus cases in individuals attending a sexual health centre in London, UK: an observational analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022;22(9):1321-8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00411-X  PMID: 35785793 
  11. Iñigo Martínez J, Gil Montalbán E, Jiménez Bueno S, Martín Martínez F, Nieto Juliá A, Sánchez Díaz J, et al. Monkeypox outbreak predominantly affecting men who have sex with men, Madrid, Spain, 26 April to 16 June 2022. Euro Surveill. 2022;27(27):2200471.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.27.2200471  PMID: 35801519 
  12. Peiró-Mestres A, Fuertes I, Camprubí-Ferrer D, Marcos , Vilella A, Navarro M, et al. , Hospital Clinic de Barcelona Monkeypox Study Group. Frequent detection of monkeypox virus DNA in saliva, semen, and other clinical samples from 12 patients, Barcelona, Spain, May to June 2022. Euro Surveill. 2022;27(28):2200503.  https://doi.org/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.28.2200503  PMID: 35837964 
  13. Li Y, Zhao H, Wilkins K, Hughes C, Damon IK. Real-time PCR assays for the specific detection of monkeypox virus West African and Congo Basin strain DNA. J Virol Methods. 2010;169(1):223-7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jviromet.2010.07.012  PMID: 20643162 
  14. World Health Organization (WHO). Multi-country monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries. Geneva: WHO; 21 May 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON385
  15. World Health Organization (WHO). Monkeypox. Geneva: WHO; 19 May 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/monkeypox
  16. World Health Organization (WHO). Multi-country monkeypox outbreak: situation update. Geneva: WHO; 27 June 2022. Available from: https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON396
  17. Patel A, Bilinska J, Tam JCH, Da Silva Fontoura D, Mason CY, Daunt A, et al. Clinical features and novel presentations of human monkeypox in a central London centre during the 2022 outbreak: descriptive case series. BMJ. 2022;378:e072410.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj-2022-072410  PMID: 35902115 
  18. European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). Monkeypox situation update, as of 6 September 2022. Stockholm: ECDC; 7 Sep 2022. Available from: https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/news-events/monkeypox-situation-update
  19. Ogoina D, Iroezindu M, James HI, Oladokun R, Yinka-Ogunleye A, Wakama P, et al. Clinical course and outcome of Human Monkeypox in Nigeria. Clin Infect Dis. 2020;71(8):e210-4.  https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciaa143  PMID: 32052029 
  20. Lapa D, Carletti F, Mazzotta V, Matusali G, Pinnetti C, Meschi S, et al. , INMI Monkeypox Study Group. Monkeypox virus isolation from a semen sample collected in the early phase of infection in a patient with prolonged seminal viral shedding. Lancet Infect Dis. 2022;22(9):1267-9.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00513-8  PMID: 35931095 
  21. Gruber K. Human semen can host up to 27 different viruses. But how many of them are transmissible is unknown. Science. 2017.  https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaq0045 
  22. Reynolds MG, Yorita KL, Kuehnert MJ, Davidson WB, Huhn GD, Holman RC, et al. Clinical manifestations of human monkeypox influenced by route of infection. J Infect Dis. 2006;194(6):773-80.  https://doi.org/10.1086/505880  PMID: 16941343 
  23. Hahon N, Wilson BJ. Pathogenesis of variola in Macaca irus monkeys. Am J Hyg. 1960;71:69-80. PMID: 14398863 
  24. Hahon N, McGAVRAN MH. Air-borne infectivity of the variola-vaccinia group of poxviruses for the cynomolgus monkey, Macaca irus. J Infect Dis. 1961;109(3):294-8.  https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/109.3.294  PMID: 13903693 
  25. Jahrling PB, Hensley LE, Martinez MJ, Leduc JW, Rubins KH, Relman DA, et al. Exploring the potential of variola virus infection of cynomolgus macaques as a model for human smallpox. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2004;101(42):15196-200.  https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0405954101  PMID: 15477589 
  26. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Duration of isolation procedures for human monkeypox. Atlanta: CDC. [Accessed 15 Jul 2022]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/poxvirus/monkeypox/clinicians/isolation-procedures.html
  27. Thornhill JP, Barkati S, Walmsley S, Rockstroh J, Antinori A, Harrison LB, et al. , SHARE-net Clinical Group. Monkeypox Virus Infection in Humans across 16 Countries - April-June 2022. N Engl J Med. 2022;387(8):679-91.  https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2207323  PMID: 35866746 
/content/10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2022.27.36.2200675
Loading

Data & Media loading...

Submit comment
Close
Comment moderation successfully completed
This is a required field
Please enter a valid email address
Approval was a Success
Invalid data
An Error Occurred
Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error